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Exclusivity of the public sphere The word "public" implies the highest level of inclusivity — the public sphere by definition should be open to all.

However, as the analysis of many "public" institutions of the Enlightenment will show, this sphere was only public to relative degrees. Indeed, as Roger Chartier emphasizes, Enlightenment thinkers frequently contrasted their conception of the "public" with that of the people: Chartier cites Condorcet, who contrasted "opinion" with populace; Marmontel with "the opinion of men of letters" versus "the opinion of the multitude"; and d'Alembert, who contrasted the "truly enlightened public" with "the blind and noisy multitude".

While the nature of public opinion during the Enlightenment is as difficult to define as it is today, it is nonetheless clear that the body that held it i.

This observation will become more apparent during the descriptions of the institutions of the public sphere, most of which excluded both women and the lower classes.

Age of Enlightenment 8. Social and cultural implications in music Because of the focus on reason over superstition, the Enlightenment cultivated the arts.

Areas of study such as literature, philosophy, science, and the fine arts increasingly explored subject matter that the general public in addition to the previously more segregated professionals and patrons could relate to.

The concerts also helped them to reach a wider audience. Handel, for example, epitomized this with his highly public musical activities in London.

He gained considerable fame there with performances of his operas and oratorios. The music of Handel and Mozart, with their Viennese Classical styles, are usually regarded as being the most in line with the Enlightenment ideals.

This text was a historical survey and an attempt to rationalize elements in music systematically over time. One manifestation of this involves women; this movement allowed women to become more involved with music on a social level.

Though women were not yet in professional roles except for singers , they contributed to the amateur performers scene, especially with keyboard music.

Additionally, music publishers began to cater to amateur musicians, putting out music that they could understand and play. The majority of the works that were published were for keyboard, voice and keyboard, and chamber ensemble.

The increasing study of the fine arts, as well as access to amateur-friendly published works, led to more people becoming interested in reading and discussing music.

Music magazines, reviews, and critical works which suited amateurs as well as connoisseurs began to surface. Recently, musicologists have shown renewed interest in the ideas and consequences of the Enlightenment.

Dissemination of ideas The philosophes spent a great deal of energy disseminating their ideas among educated men and women in cosmopolitan cities.

They used many venues, some of them quite new. Schools and universities In Germany and Scotland, the Enlightenment leaders were based in universities.

In France the major exception was the medical university at Montpellier. Learned academies The history of Academies in France during the Enlightenment begins with the Academy of Science, founded in in Paris.

It was closely tied to the French state, acting as an extension of a government seriously lacking in scientists.

It helped promote and organize new disciplines, and it trained new scientists. They did perceive themselves to be "interpreters of the sciences for the people".

Indeed, it was with this in mind that academians took it upon themselves to disprove the popular pseudo-science of mesmerism. As Jeremy L. By roughly , however, this subject matter had radically expanded and diversified, including "royal propaganda, philosophical battles, and critical ruminations on the social and political institutions of the Old Regime.

Indeed, although the "vast majority" of participants belonged to the wealthier strata of society "the liberal arts, the clergy, the judiciary, and the medical profession" , there were some cases of the popular classes submitting essays, and even winning.

Of a total of 2 prize competitions offered in France, women won 49 — perhaps a small number by modern standards, but very significant in an age in which most women did not have any academic training.

Indeed, the majority of the winning entries were for poetry competitions, a genre commonly stressed in women's education.

In particular, it played a large role in spreading Robert Boyle's experimental philosophy around Europe, and acted as a clearinghouse for intellectual correspondence and exchange.

Boyle's method based knowledge on experimentation, which had to be witnessed to provide proper empirical legitimacy.

This is where the Royal Society came into play: witnessing had to be a "collective act", and the Royal Society's assembly rooms were ideal locations for relatively public demonstrations.

In other words, only civil society were considered for Boyle's public. The book industry The increased consumption of reading materials of all sorts was one of the key features of the "social" Enlightenment.

Developments in the Industrial Revolution allowed consumer goods to be produced in greater quantities at lower prices, encouraging the spread of books, pamphlets, newspapers and journals — "media of the transmission of ideas and attitudes".

Commercial development likewise increased the demand for information, along with rising populations and increased urbanisation. Literacy rates are difficult to gauge, but Robert Darnton writes that, in France at least, the rates doubled over the course of the 18th century.

In particular, Rolf Engelsing has argued for the existence of a "reading revolution". Until , reading was done "intensively: people tended to own a small number of books and read them repeatedly, often to small audience.

After , people began to read "extensively", finding as many books as they could, increasingly reading them alone. And if this was an ideal only realistic for state institutions and the very wealthy and indeed, an ideal that was seldom achieved , there are records for extremely large private and state-run libraries throughout Europe in the 17th and 18th-centuries.

And while most of the state-run "universal libraries" set up in the 17th and 18th centuries were open to the public, they were not the only sources of reading material.

Intended for a largely rural and semi-literate audience these books included almanacs, retellings of medieval romances and condensed versions of popular novels, among other things.

Libraries that lent out their material for a small price started to appear, and occasionally bookstores would offer a small lending library to their patrons.

Coffee houses commonly offered books, journals and sometimes even popular novels to their customers.

The Tatler and The Spectator, two influential periodicals sold from to , were closely associated with coffee house culture in London, being both read and produced in various establishments in the city.

For example, examining the catalogs of private libraries not only gives an image skewed in favor of the classes wealthy enough to afford libraries, it also ignores censured works unlikely to be publicly acknowledged.

For this reason, Darnton argues that a study of publishing would be much more fruitful for discerning reading habits.

Indeed, many publishing companies were conveniently located outside of France so as to avoid overzealous French censors.

They would smuggle their merchandise — both pirated copies and censured works — across the border, where it would then be transported to clandestine booksellers or small-time peddlers.

At the time, the town's population was 22, The most popular category of books was political copies ordered.

Readers were far more interested in sensationalist stories about criminals and political corruption than they were in political theory itself.

The second most popular category, "general works" those books "that did not have a dominant motif and that contained something to offend almost everyone in authority" likewise betrayed the high demand for generally low-brow subversive literature.

These works, however, like the vast majority of work produced by Darnton's "grub street hacks", never became part of literary canon, and are largely forgotten today as a result.

Natural history A genre that greatly rose in importance was that of scientific literature. Natural history in particular became increasingly popular among the upper classes.

Spary writes, the classifications used by naturalists "slipped between the natural world and the social Naturalists catered to polite society's desire for erudition — many texts had an explicit instructive purpose.

In this way natural history spread many of the scientific development of the time, but also provided a new source of legitimacy for the dominant class.

Scientific and literary journals The many scientific and literary journals predominantly composed of book reviews that were published during this time are also evidence of the intellectual side of the Enlightenment.

In fact, Jonathan Israel argues that the learned journals, from the s onwards, influenced European intellectual culture to a greater degree than any other "cultural innovation".

French and Latin were the dominant languages of publication, but there was also a steady demand for material in German and Dutch. There was generally low demand for English publications on the Continent, which was echoed by England's similar lack of desire for French works.

Languages commanding less of an international market — such as Danish, Spanish and Portuguese — found journal success more difficult, and more often than not, a more international language was used instead.

Although German did have an international quality to it, it was French that slowly took over Latin's status as the lingua franca of learned circles.

First was their role in shifting the attention of the "cultivated public" away from "established authorities" to "what was new, innovative, or challenging.

The journals suggested a new source of knowledge — through science and reason — that undermined these sources of authority.

And finally, they advanced the "Christian Enlightenment", a notion of Enlightenment that, despite its advocacy for new knowledge sources, upheld "the legitimacy of God-ordained authority.

The Republic of Letters The term "Republic of Letters" was coined by Pierre Bayle in , in his journal Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres.

It is the realm of talent and of thought. Discursively, she bases the Republic of Letters in polite conversation and letter writing; its principal social institution was the salon.

It belongs to a very small number of privileged souls It is unknown in bourgeois families, where one is constantly occupied with the care of one's fortune".

In the words of Darnton, Voltaire "thought that the Enlightenment should begin with the grands". Grub Street Darnton argues that the result of this "fusion of gens de lettres and grands" was the creation of an oppositional literary sphere, Grub Street, the domain of a "multitude of versifiers and would-be authors".

The literary market simply could not support large numbers of writers, who, in any case, were very poorly remunerated by the publishing-bookselling guilds.

This disease elongates the face, destroys the complexion, reduces the weight, and causes horrible ravages where it becomes situated. There are lades without teeth, others without eyebrows, and some are completely paralyzed.

Coffee houses The first English coffeehouse opened in Oxford in Brian Cowan argues that Oxford coffeehouses developed into "penny universities", offering a locus of learning that was less formal than structured institutions.

These penny universities occupied a significant position in Oxford academic life, as they were frequented by virtuosi, who conducted their research on the premises.

According to Cowan, "the coffeehouse was a place for like-minded scholars to congregate, to read, as well as learn from and to debate with each other, but was emphatically not a university institution, and the discourse there was of a far different order than any university tutorial.

These bruits were allegedly a much better source of information than were the actual newspapers available at the time. The Debating Societies that rapidly came into existence in London present an almost perfect example of the public sphere during the Enlightenment.

Religious Society of Old Portugal Street. The backdrop to these developments was what Andrew calls "an explosion of interest in the theory and practice of public elocution".

The debating societies were commercial enterprises that responded to this demand, sometimes very successfully. Indeed, some societies welcomed from to spectators a night.

One broad area was women: societies debated over "male and female qualities", courtship, marriage, and the role of women in the public sphere.

Societies also discussed political issues, varying from recent events to "the nature and limits of political authority", and the nature of suffrage.

Debates on religion rounded out the subject matter. It is important to note, however, that the critical subject matter of these debates did not necessarily translate into opposition to the government.

In other words, the results of the debate quite frequently upheld the status quo. Once inside, spectators were able to participate in a largely egalitarian form of sociability that helped spread "Enlightening ideas".

Freemasonic lodges Historians have recently been debating the extent to which Freemasonry was part of, or even a main factor in the Enlightenment.

On the one hand, historians agree that the famous leaders of the Enlightenment included Freemasons such as Montesquieu, Voltaire, Pope, Horace Walpole, Sir Robert Walpole, Mozart, Goethe, Frederick the Great, Benjamin Franklin, and George Washington.

Freemasonic lodges originated from English and Scottish stonemasonic guilds in the 17th century. Freemasonry was officially established on the continent of Europe in , when a lodge was set up in The Hague, although the first "fully formed lodge" appears to have met in in Rotterdam.

Similarly, there are records of a Parisian lodge meeting in or Jacob argues that they "reconstituted the polity and established a constitutional form of self-government, complete with constitutions and laws, elections and representatives".

In other words, the micro-society set up within the lodges constituted a normative model for society as a whole. This was especially true on the Continent: when the first lodges began to appear in the s, their embodiment of British values was often seen as threatening by state authorities.

For example, the Parisian lodge that met in the mid s was composed of English Jacobite exiles. In French lodges, for example, the line "As the means to be enlightened I search for the enlightened" was a part of their initiation rites.

British lodges assigned themselves the duty to "initiate the unenlightened". This did not necessarily link lodges to the irreligious, but neither did this exclude them from the occasional heresy.

In fact, many lodges praised the Grand Architect, the masonic terminology for the divine being who created a scientifically ordered universe.

The presence, for example, of noble women in the French "lodges of adoption" that formed in the s was largely due to the close ties shared between these lodges and aristocratic society.

A historiographical overview Enlightenment historiography began in the period itself, from what "Enlightenment figures" said about their work.

A dominant element was the intellectual angle they took. Enlightenment was a desire for human affairs to be guided by rationality rather than by faith, superstition, or revelation; a belief in the power of human reason to change society and liberate the individual from the restraints of custom or arbitrary authority; all backed up by a world view increasingly validated by science rather than by religion or tradition.

Like the French Revolution, the Enlightenment has long been hailed as the foundation of modern Western political and intellectual culture.

However, as Roger Chartier points out, it was perhaps the Revolution that "invented the Enlightenment by attempting to root its legitimacy in a corpus of texts and founding authors reconciled and united In any case, two 19th-century historians of the Enlightenment, Hippolyte Taine and Alexis de Tocqueville, did much to solidify this link of Enlightenment causing revolution and the intellectual perception of the Enlightenment itself.

However, this was not without the help of the scientific view of the world [of the Enlightenment], which wore down the "monarchical and religious dogma of the old regime".

For de Tocqueville, the Revolution was the inevitable result of the radical opposition created in the 18th century between the monarchy and the men of letters of the Enlightenment.

These men of letters constituted a sort of "substitute aristocracy that was both all-powerful and without real power".

This illusory power came from the rise of "public opinion", born when absolutist centralization removed the nobility and the bourgeosie from the political sphere.

The "literary politics" that resulted promoted a discourse of equality and was hence in fundamental opposition to the monarchical regime. However, there is a distinctly social quality to his analysis.

In the words of Chartier, de Tocqueville "clearly designates In the meantime, though, intellectual history remained the dominant historiographical trend.

The German scholar Ernst Cassirer is typical, writing in his The Philosophy of the Enlightenment that the Enlightenment was " a part and a special phase of that whole intellectual development through which modern philosophic thought gained its characteristic self-confidence and self-consciousness".

Borrowing from Kant, Cassirer states that Enlightenment is the process by which the spirit "achieves clarity and depth in its understanding of its own nature and destiny, and of its own fundamental character and mission".

Age of Enlightenment Recent work Only in the s did interpretation of the Enlightenment allow for a more heterogeneous and even extra-European vision.

Owen Aldridge demonstrated how Enlightenment ideas spread to Spanish colonies and how they interacted with indigenous cultures, while Franco Venturi explored how the Enlightenment took place in normally unstudied areas — Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Poland, Hungary, and Russia.

He said, : "Perhaps the Enlightenment was a more down-to-earth affair than the rarefied climate of opinion described by textbook writers, and we should question the overly highbrow, overly metaphysical view of intellectual life in the eighteenth century.

In short, rather than concerning himself with Enlightenment canon, Darnton studies "what Frenchmen wanted to read", and who wrote, published and distributed it.

This is representative of the social interpretation as a whole — an examination of the social conditions that brought about Enlightenment ideas rather than a study of the ideas themselves.

The work of German philosopher Jürgen Habermas was central to this emerging social interpretation; his seminal work The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere published under the title Strukturwandel der Öffentlicheit in was translated into English in The book outlines the creation of the "bourgeois public sphere" in 18th century Europe.

Essentially, this public sphere describes the new venues and modes of communication allowing for rational exchange that appeared in the 18th century.

Habermas argued that the public sphere was bourgeois, egalitarian, rational, and independent from the state, making it the ideal venue for intellectuals to critically examine contemporary politics and society, away from the interference of established authority.

Habermas's work, though influential, has come under criticism on all fronts. While the public sphere is generally an integral component of social interpretations of the Enlightenment, numerous historians have brought into question whether the public sphere was bourgeois, oppositional to the state, independent from the state, or egalitarian.

In A Social History of Truth , for example, Steven Shapin makes the largely sociological argument that, in 17th-century England, the mode of sociability known as civility became the primary discourse of truth; for a statement to have the potential to be considered true, it had to be expressed according to the rules of civil society.

Feminist interpretations have also appeared, with Dena Goodman being one notable example. All this is not to say that intellectual interpretations no longer exist.

Like many historians before him, he sets the Enlightenment within the context of the French Revolution to follow. Author of "Vom Tode für's Vaterland" On dying for one's nation.

In his book De Philosophia Cartesiana Bekker argued that theology and philosophy each had their separate terrain and that Nature can no more be explained from Scripture than can theological truth be deduced from Nature.

Philosopher and mathematician famous Voltaire at age 70 for developing the theory of subjective idealism. Biographer of Samuel Johnson, helped established the norms for writing biography in general.

Buffon — French biologist. Author of L'Histoire Naturelle considered Natural Selection and the similarities between humans and apes.

Parliamentarian and political philosopher, best known for pragmatism, considered important to both Enlightenment and conservative thinking.

Philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer. Historian, best known for his Antique History of Mexico.

Philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. Explored much of the Pacific including New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia and Hawaii.

Director of the Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences known now as the Russian Academy of Sciences. Writer and playwright. First president of Paraguay.

Introduced radical political ideas never-before seen in South America to Paraguay, making his country prosperous and more secure than any other in South-America.

Statesman, scientist, political philosopher, author. As a philosopher known for his writings on nationality, economic matters, aphorisms published in Poor Richard's Almanac and polemics in favor of American Independence.

Involved with writing the United States Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of Historian best known for his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

Economist, political theorist and politician. A major protagonist for the Constitution of the United States, and the single greatest contributor to the Federalist Papers, advocating for the constitution's ratification through detailed examinations of its construction, philosophical and moral basis, and intent.

Theologian and linguist. Proposed that language determines thought, introduced concepts of ethnic study and nationalism, influential on later Romantic thinkers.

Early supporter of democracy and republican self rule. While Hobbes justifies absolute monarchy, this work is the first to posit that the temporal power of a monarch comes about, not because God has ordained that he be monarch, but because his subjects have freely yielded their own power and freedom to him - in other words, Hobbes replaces the divine right of kings with an early formulation of the social contract.

Hobbes' work was condemned by reformers for its defense of absolutism, and by traditionalists for its claim that the power of government derives from the power of its subjects rather than the will of God.

Author, encyclopaedist and Europe's first outspoken atheist. Roused much controversy over his criticism of religion as a whole in his work The System of Nature.

Performed the work which quantified such concepts as Boyle's Law and the inverse-square nature of gravitation, father of the science of microscopy.

Historian, philosopher and economist. Best known for his empiricism and rational skepticism, advanced doctrines of naturalism and material causes.

Influenced Kant and Adam Smith. Philosopher and physicist. Established critical philosophy on a systematic basis, proposed a material theory for the origin of the solar system, wrote on ethics and morals.

Prescribed a politics of Enlightenment in What is Enlightenment? Influenced by Hume and Isaac Newton. Important figure in German Idealism, and important to the work of Fichte and Hegel.

Statesman, political philosopher, educator. As a philosopher best known for the United States Declaration of Independence , especially "All men are created equal," and his support of democracy in theory and practice.

A polymath, he promoted higher education as a way to uplift the entire nation. Preeminent statesman. Government Constitution to assist in the document's implementation.

Leading poet of the Polish Enlightenment. Dramatist, critic, political philosopher. Important empiricist who expanded and extended the work of Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes.

Seminal thinker in the realm of the relationship between the state and the individual, the contractual basis of the state and the rule of law.

Argued for personal liberty emphasizing the rights of property. Polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science.

Statesman and political philosopher. Played a key role in the writing of the United States Constitution and providing a theoretical justification for it in his contributions to the Federalist Papers; author of the American Bill of Rights.

Philosopher of Jewish Enlightenment in Prussia Haskalah , honoured by his friend Lessing in his drama as Nathan the Wise.

Philosopher, jurist, pre-evolutionary thinker and contributor to linguistic evolution. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions all over the world.

Political scientist, Donald Lutz, found that Montesquieu was the most frequently quoted authority on government in colonial America.

Dramatist and translator, support of republicanism and free thinking. Transitional figure to Romanticism. A leading composer of the era. Philanthropist and journalist who sought to raise the culture of Russian readers and publicly argued with the Empress.

See Russian Enlightenment. Polymath-poet, writer, historian, translator, engraver, editor, publisher, etc. Writer, linguist and influential proponent of Serbian cultural nationalism.

He also implemented sweeping economic policies to regulate commercial activity and standardize quality throughout the country.

Writer and philosopher. He brought the tradition of radicalism in Russian literature to prominence. Philosopher who developed Common Sense Realism.

He wrote The Wealth of Nations, in which he argued that wealth was not money in itself, but wealth was derived from the added value in manufactured items produced by both invested capital and labour.

He is sometimes considered to be the founding father of the laissez-faire economic theory, but in fact argues for some degree of government control in order to maintain equity.

Just prior to this he wrote Theory of Moral Sentiments, explaining how it is humans function and interact through what he calls sympathy, setting up important context for The Wealth of Nations.

Highly influential writer, historian and philosopher. He promoted Newtonian ism and denounced organized religion as pernicious.

References [1] Robert R. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution [2] Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd Edn revised [3] This section is taken largely from Roy Porter's book entitled The Enlightenment [4] Russell, Bertrand.

A History of Western Philosophy. The argument is expanded in Daniel Brewer, The Enlightenment Past: Reconstructing Eighteenth-Century French Thought Cambridge U.

Press, [6] Jonathan I. Israel, Enlightenment Contested, Oxford, , pp. Israel, Radical Enlightenment, Oxford, , p. Israel, , p. Israel, A revolution of the mind, Princeton University Press, , p.

Retrieved Livingstone and Charles W. Withers, Geography and Enlightenment [18] Stephen J. Lee, Aspects of European history, — pp.

Richter, ed. The Literature of Weimar Classicism [24] Samantha Owens et al. Music at German Courts, — Changing Artistic Priorities [25] Manfred Kuehn, Kant: A Biography The Society of the Enlightenment: The Rise of the Middle Class and Enlightenment Culture in Germany [27] David Daiches, Peter Jones and Jean Jones, A Hotbed of Genius: The Scottish Enlightenment, — [28] Bruce P.

The Enlightenment: An Interpretation. Landry, Marx and the postmodernism debates: an agenda for critical theory p. D'Andrea, Tradition, rationality, and virtue: the thought of Alasdair MacIntyre p.

Habermas, 14— Peter Burkholder, Donald J. Grout and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music, Seventh Edition, New York: W.

Histoire, Sciences sociales, vol. This same desire for multiple witnesses led to attempts at replication in other locations and a complex iconography and literary technology developed to provide visual and written proof of experimentation.

See pages 59— See Rolf Engelsing, "Die Perioden der Lesergeschichte in der Neuzeit. Das statische Ausmass und die soziokulturelle Bedeutung der Lektüre", Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens, 10 , cols.

Martin's, , For a more detailed description of French censorship laws, see Darnton, The Literary Underground [72] Outram, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , , Kant, "What is Enlightenment?

As a result, the conclusions that he draws generally cannot, without further research, be applied to other cultural contexts. Andrew, "Popular Culture and Public Debate: London ", This Historical Journal, Vol.

June , pp. Andrew gives the name as "William Henley", which must be a lapse of writing. Bullock, "Initiating the Enlightenment?

Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution: The struggle p. York, "Freemasons and the American Revolution", The Historian Volume: Issue: 2.

ISBN See also Janet M. Burke, "Freemasonry, Friendship and Noblewomen: The Role of the Secret Society in Bringing Enlightenment Thought to Pre-Revolutionary Women Elites", History of European Ideas 10 no.

Jacob's seminal work on Enlightenment freemasonry, Margaret C. Jacob, Living the Enlightenment: Free masonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe, New York: Oxford University Press, The past tense is used deliberately as whether man would educate himself or be educated by certain exemplary figures was a common issue at the time.

See also, A. Owen Alridge ed. The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers. Historical Dictionary of the Enlightenment.

The Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Paganism , 2nd ed. The Enlightenment World. Enlightenment: A Comparative Social History, — England.

The Enlightenment 2nd ed. The Blackwell Companion to the Enlightenment. Owen ed. The Ibero-American Enlightenment The Historical Journal, Vol. June , pp — The Enlightenment Past: reconstructing 18th-century French thought.

The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution. Translated by Lydia G. Duke University Press, New Haven: Yale University Press, The Literary Underground of the Old Regime.

The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment. The Other Enlightenment: How French Women Became Modern.

Princeton: Princeton University Press, Science and the Enlightenment Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, — A Revolution of the Mind - Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy.

The Enlightenment in America. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe. The Creation of the Modern World: The Untold Story of the British Enlightenment.

Philadelphia's Enlightenment, — Kingdom of Christ, Empire of Reason. France in the Enlightenment. Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding.

Mozart and the Enlightenment: Truth, Virtue, and Beauty in Mozart's Operas. Utopia and Reform in the Enlightenment.

George Macaulay Trevelyan Lecture, Rameau's Nephew and First Satire. Science in the Age of Enlightenment The scientific history of the Age of Enlightenment traces developments in science and technology during the Age of Reason, when Enlightenment ideas and ideals were being disseminated across Europe and North America.

Generally, the period spans from the final days of the 16th and 17th-century Scientific revolution until roughly the 19th century, after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era — By the 18th century, scientific authority began to displace religious authority, and the disciplines of alchemy and Table of astronomy, from the Cyclopaedia astrology lost scientific credibility.

While the Enlightenment cannot be pigeonholed into a specific doctrine or set of dogmas, science came to play a leading role in Enlightenment discourse and thought.

Many Enlightenment writers and thinkers had backgrounds in the sciences and associated scientific advancement with the overthrow of religion and traditional authority in favour of the development of free speech and thought.

Broadly speaking, Enlightenment science greatly valued empiricism and rational thought, and was embedded with the Enlightenment ideal of advancement and progress.

As with most Enlightenment views, the benefits of science were not seen universally; Jean-Jacques Rousseau criticized the sciences for distancing man from nature and not operating to make people happier.

Science during the Enlightenment was dominated by scientific societies and academies, which had largely replaced universities as centres of scientific research and development.

Societies and academies were also the backbone of the maturation of the scientific profession. Another important development was the popularization of science among an increasingly literate population.

Universities The number of universities in Europe remained relatively constant throughout the 18th century. Europe had about universities and colleges by North America had 44, including the newly founded Harvard and Yale.

The universities themselves existed primarily to educate future physicians, lawyers and The original building at Yale, — members of the clergy.

The study of science under the heading of natural philosophy was divided into physics and a conglomerate grouping of chemistry and natural history, which included anatomy, biology, geology, mineralogy, and zoology.

A notable exception were universities in Spain, which under the influence of Catholicism focused almost entirely on Aristotelian natural philosophy until the midth century; they were among the last universities to do so.

Another exception occurred in the universities of Germany and Scandinavia, where University of Halle professor Christian Wolff taught a form of Cartesianism modified by Leibnizian physics.

Before the 18th century, science courses were taught almost exclusively through formal lectures. The structure of courses began to change in the first decades of the 18th century, when physical demonstrations were added to lectures.

Experiments ranged from swinging a bucket of water at the end of a rope, demonstrating that centrifugal force would hold the water in the bucket, to more impressive experiments involving the use of an air-pump.

Some attempts at reforming the structure of the science curriculum were made during the 18th-century and the first decades of the 19th century.

Beginning around , the Hats party in Sweden made propositions to reform the university system by separating natural philosophy into two separate faculties of physics and mathematics.

However, the reform did not survive beyond and the Third Partition. The state of Belgium-Holland employed the same system in However, the other countries of Europe did not adopt a similar division of the faculties until the midth century.

Universities in France tended to serve a downplayed role in the development of science during the Enlightenment; that role was dominated by the scientific academies, such as the French Academy of Sciences.

The contributions of universities in Britain were mixed. On the one hand, the University of Cambridge began teaching Newtonianism early in the Enlightenment, but failed to become a central force behind the advancement of science.

On the other end of the spectrum were Scottish universities, which had strong medical faculties and became centres of scientific development.

Christian Wolff's unique The old entrance to the University of Göttingen. The University of Göttingen, founded in , was far more liberal than its counterparts, allowing professors to plan their own courses and select their own textbooks.

Göttingen also emphasized research and publication. Most of the new institutions emphasized mathematics as a discipline, making them popular with professions that required some working knowledge of mathematics, such as merchants, military and naval officers, and engineers.

Societies and Academies Scientific academies and societies grew out of the Scientific Revolution as the creators of scientific knowledge in contrast to the scholasticism of the university.

After a tremendous number of official academies and societies were founded in Europe and by there were over seventy official scientific societies.

At the turn of the century, the Academia Scientiarum Imperialis in St. Petersburg, and the Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences were created.

Regional and provincial societies emerged out of the 18th century in Bologna, Bordeaux, Copenhagen, Dijon, Lyons, Montpellier and Uppsala.

Following this initial period of growth, societies were founded between and in Barcelona, Brussels, Dublin, Edinburgh, Göttingen, Mannheim, Munich, Padua and Turin.

The development of unchartered societies, such as the private the Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Danzig and Lunar Society of Birmingham — , occurred alongside the growth of national, regional and provincial societies.

Official scientific societies were chartered by the state in order to provide technical expertise. State sponsorship was beneficial to the societies as it brought finance and recognition, along with a measure of freedom in management.

Most societies were granted permission to oversee their own publications, control the election of new members, and the administration of the society.

Kunstkammer in Saint Petersburg. In some societies, members were required to pay an annual fee to participate. For example, the Royal Society depended on contributions from its members, which excluded a wide range of artisans and mathematicians on account of the expense.

A dialogue of formal communication also developed between societies and society in general through the publication of scientific journals.

Periodicals offered society members the opportunity to publish, and for their ideas to be consumed by other scientific societies and the literate public.

Scientific journals, readily accessible to members of learned societies, became the most important form of publication for scientists during the Enlightenment.

Periodicals Academies and societies served to disseminate Enlightenment science by publishing the scientific works of their members, as well as their proceedings.

At the beginning of the 18th century, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, published by the Royal Society of London, was the only scientific periodical being published on a regular, quarterly basis.

The Paris Academy of Sciences, formed in , began publishing in volumes of memoirs rather than a quarterly journal, with periods between volumes sometimes lasting years.

Smaller periodicals, such as Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, were only published when enough content was available to complete a volume.

At one point the period extended to seven years. The limitations of such academic journals left considerable space for the rise of independent periodicals.

Independent periodicals were published throughout the Enlightenment and excited scientific interest in the general public.

First, they increased in number and size. There was also a move away from publishing in Latin in favour of publishing in the vernacular.

Experimental descriptions became more detailed and began to be accompanied by reviews. The journal allowed new scientific developments to be published relatively quickly compared to annuals and quarterlies.

A third important change was the specialization seen in the new development of disciplinary journals. Encyclopedias and dictionaries Although the existence of dictionaries and encyclopedias spanned into ancient times, and would be nothing new to Enlightenment readers, the texts changed from simply defining words in a long running list to far more detailed discussions of those words in 18th-century encyclopedic dictionaries.

Volumes tended to focus more strongly on secular affairs, particularly science and technology, rather than matters of theology.

Along with secular matters, readers also favoured an alphabetical ordering scheme over cumbersome works arranged along thematic lines. Revolution — Published in , the Lexicon technicum was the first book to be written in English that took a methodical approach to describing mathematics and commercial arithmetic along with the physical sciences and navigation.

The folio edition of the work even included foldout engravings. The Cyclopaedia emphasized Newtonian theories, Lockean philosophy, and contained thorough examinations of technologies, such as engraving, brewing, and dyeing.

In Germany, practical reference works intended for the uneducated majority became popular in the 18th century. The Marperger Curieuses Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerkund Handlungs-Lexicon explained terms that usefully described the trades and scientific and commercial education.

Jablonksi Allgemeines Lexicon was better known than the Handlungs-Lexicon, and underscored technical subjects rather than scientific theory.

For example, over five columns of text were dedicated to wine, while geometry and logic were allocated only twenty-two and seventeen lines, respectively.

However, the prime example of reference works that systematized scientific knowledge in the age of Enlightenment were universal encyclopedias rather than technical dictionaries.

It was the goal of universal encyclopedias to record all human knowledge in a comprehensive reference work. The work, which began publication in , was composed of thirty-five volumes and over 71 separate entries.

A great number of the entries were dedicated to describing the sciences and crafts in detail. As a Reasoned Dictionary.

Both areas of knowledge were united by philosophy, or the trunk of the tree of knowledge. Popularization of science One of the most important developments that the Enlightenment era brought to the discipline of science was its popularization.

An increasingly literate population seeking knowledge and education in both the arts and the sciences drove the expansion of print culture and the dissemination of scientific learning.

The new literate population was due to a high rise in the availability of food. This enabled many people to rise out of poverty, and instead of paying more for food, they had money for education.

British coffeehouses An early example of science emanating from the official institutions into the public realm was the British coffeehouse.

With the establishment of coffeehouses, a new public forum for political, philosophical and scientific discourse was created.

In the midth century, coffeehouses cropped up around Oxford, where the academic community began to capitalize on the unregulated conversation that the coffeehouse allowed.

Education was a central theme and some patrons began offering lessons and lectures to others. As coffeehouses developed in London, customers heard lectures on scientific subjects, such as astronomy and mathematics, for an exceedingly low price.

Public lectures Public lecture courses offered some scientists who were unaffiliated with official organizations a forum to transmit scientific knowledge, at times even their own ideas, and the opportunity to carve out a reputation and, in some instances, a living.

The public, on the other hand, gained both knowledge and entertainment from demonstration lectures. Class sizes ranged from one hundred to four or five hundred attendees.

Courses were offered at virtually any time of day; the latest occurred at or at night. One of the most popular start times was pm, allowing the working population to participate and signifying the attendance of the nonelite.

Generally, individuals presenting the lectures did not adhere to any particular brand of physics, but rather demonstrated a combination of different theories.

In the demonstration, a young boy would be suspended from the ceiling, horizontal to the floor, with silk chords. An electrical machine would then be used to electrify the boy.

Essentially becoming a magnet, he would then attract a collection of items scattered about him by the lecturer.

Popular science in print Increasing literacy rates in Europe during the course of the Enlightenment enabled science to enter popular culture through print.

More formal works included explanations of scientific theories for individuals lacking the educational background to comprehend the original scientific text.

The publication of Bernard de Fontenelle's Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds marked the first significant work that expressed scientific theory and knowledge expressly for the laity, in the vernacular, and with the entertainment of readers in mind.

The book was produced specifically for women with an interest in scientific writing and inspired a variety of similar works.

A similar introduction to Newtonianism for women was produced by Henry Pembarton. Extant records of subscribers show that women from a wide range of social standings purchased the book, indicating the growing number of scientifically inclined female readers among the middling class.

Sarah Trimmer wrote a successful natural history textbook for children entitled The Easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature , which was published for many years after in eleven editions.

The influence of science also began appearing more commonly in poetry and literature during the Enlightenment. Some poetry became infused with scientific metaphor and imagery, while other poems were written directly about scientific topics.

Sir Richard Blackmore committed the Newtonian system to verse in Creation, a Philosophical Poem in Seven Books Other antiscience writers, including William Blake, chastised scientists for attempting to use physics, mechanics and mathematics to simplify the complexities of the universe, particularly in relation to God.

The character of the evil scientist was invoked during this period in the romantic tradition. For example, the characterization of the scientist as a nefarious manipulator in the work of Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann.

Women in science During the Enlightenment era, women were excluded from scientific societies, universities and learned professions.

Women were educated, if at all, through self-study, tutors, and by the teachings of more open-minded fathers. In fact, restrictions were so severe in the 18th century that women, including midwives, were forbidden to use forceps.

Over the course of the 18th century, male surgeons began to assume the role of midwives in gynaecology. Some male satirists also ridiculed scientifically minded women, describing them as A portrait of Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky.

To be pleasing in his sight, to win his respect and love, to train him in childhood, to tend him in manhood, to counsel and console, to make his life pleasant and happy, these are the duties of woman for all time, and this is what she should be taught while she is young.

Despite these limitations, there was support for women in the sciences among some men, and many made valuable contributions to science during the 18th century.

Two notable women who managed to participate in formal institutions were Laura Bassi and the Russian Princess Yekaterina Dashkova. Bassi was an Italian physicist who received a PhD from the University of Bologna and began teaching there in Dashkova became the director of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences of St.

Petersburg in Her personal relationship with Czarina Catherine the Great r. More commonly, women participated in the sciences through an association with a male relative or spouse.

Caroline Herschel began her astronomical career, although somewhat reluctantly at first, by assisting her brother William Herschel.

Caroline Herschel is most Portrait of M. On August 1, , Herschel discovered her first comet, much to the excitement of scientifically minded women.

Eva Ekeblad became the first woman inducted in to the Royal Swedish Academy of Science Many other women became illustrators or translators of scientific texts.

Englishwoman Mary Delany developed a unique method of illustration. Her technique involved using hundreds of pieces of coloured-paper to recreate lifelike renditions of living plants.

Noblewomen sometimes cultivated their own botanical gardens, including Mary Somerset and Margaret Harley.

Scientific translation sometimes required more than a grasp on multiple languages. Astronomy Building on the body of work forwarded by Copernicus, Kepler and Newton, 18th-century astronomers refined telescopes, produced star catalogues, and worked towards explaining the motions of heavenly bodies and the consequences of universal gravitation.

The Republic of Letters The term "Republic of Letters" was coined by Pierre Bayle in , in his journal Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres.

It is the realm of talent and of thought. Discursively, she bases the Republic of Letters in polite conversation and letter writing; its principal social institution was the salon.

It belongs to a very small number of privileged souls It is unknown in bourgeois families, where one is constantly occupied with the care of one's fortune".

In the words of Darnton, Voltaire "thought that the Enlightenment should begin with the grands". Grub Street Darnton argues that the result of this "fusion of gens de lettres and grands" was the creation of an oppositional literary sphere, Grub Street, the domain of a "multitude of versifiers and would-be authors".

The literary market simply could not support large numbers of writers, who, in any case, were very poorly remunerated by the publishing-bookselling guilds.

This disease elongates the face, destroys the complexion, reduces the weight, and causes horrible ravages where it becomes situated. There are lades without teeth, others without eyebrows, and some are completely paralyzed.

Coffee houses The first English coffeehouse opened in Oxford in Brian Cowan argues that Oxford coffeehouses developed into "penny universities", offering a locus of learning that was less formal than structured institutions.

These penny universities occupied a significant position in Oxford academic life, as they were frequented by virtuosi, who conducted their research on the premises.

According to Cowan, "the coffeehouse was a place for like-minded scholars to congregate, to read, as well as learn from and to debate with each other, but was emphatically not a university institution, and the discourse there was of a far different order than any university tutorial.

These bruits were allegedly a much better source of information than were the actual newspapers available at the time. The Debating Societies that rapidly came into existence in London present an almost perfect example of the public sphere during the Enlightenment.

Religious Society of Old Portugal Street. The backdrop to these developments was what Andrew calls "an explosion of interest in the theory and practice of public elocution".

The debating societies were commercial enterprises that responded to this demand, sometimes very successfully. Indeed, some societies welcomed from to spectators a night.

One broad area was women: societies debated over "male and female qualities", courtship, marriage, and the role of women in the public sphere.

Societies also discussed political issues, varying from recent events to "the nature and limits of political authority", and the nature of suffrage.

Debates on religion rounded out the subject matter. It is important to note, however, that the critical subject matter of these debates did not necessarily translate into opposition to the government.

In other words, the results of the debate quite frequently upheld the status quo. Once inside, spectators were able to participate in a largely egalitarian form of sociability that helped spread "Enlightening ideas".

Freemasonic lodges Historians have recently been debating the extent to which Freemasonry was part of, or even a main factor in the Enlightenment.

On the one hand, historians agree that the famous leaders of the Enlightenment included Freemasons such as Montesquieu, Voltaire, Pope, Horace Walpole, Sir Robert Walpole, Mozart, Goethe, Frederick the Great, Benjamin Franklin, and George Washington.

Freemasonic lodges originated from English and Scottish stonemasonic guilds in the 17th century. Freemasonry was officially established on the continent of Europe in , when a lodge was set up in The Hague, although the first "fully formed lodge" appears to have met in in Rotterdam.

Similarly, there are records of a Parisian lodge meeting in or Jacob argues that they "reconstituted the polity and established a constitutional form of self-government, complete with constitutions and laws, elections and representatives".

In other words, the micro-society set up within the lodges constituted a normative model for society as a whole. This was especially true on the Continent: when the first lodges began to appear in the s, their embodiment of British values was often seen as threatening by state authorities.

For example, the Parisian lodge that met in the mid s was composed of English Jacobite exiles. In French lodges, for example, the line "As the means to be enlightened I search for the enlightened" was a part of their initiation rites.

British lodges assigned themselves the duty to "initiate the unenlightened". This did not necessarily link lodges to the irreligious, but neither did this exclude them from the occasional heresy.

In fact, many lodges praised the Grand Architect, the masonic terminology for the divine being who created a scientifically ordered universe.

The presence, for example, of noble women in the French "lodges of adoption" that formed in the s was largely due to the close ties shared between these lodges and aristocratic society.

A historiographical overview Enlightenment historiography began in the period itself, from what "Enlightenment figures" said about their work.

A dominant element was the intellectual angle they took. Enlightenment was a desire for human affairs to be guided by rationality rather than by faith, superstition, or revelation; a belief in the power of human reason to change society and liberate the individual from the restraints of custom or arbitrary authority; all backed up by a world view increasingly validated by science rather than by religion or tradition.

Like the French Revolution, the Enlightenment has long been hailed as the foundation of modern Western political and intellectual culture.

However, as Roger Chartier points out, it was perhaps the Revolution that "invented the Enlightenment by attempting to root its legitimacy in a corpus of texts and founding authors reconciled and united In any case, two 19th-century historians of the Enlightenment, Hippolyte Taine and Alexis de Tocqueville, did much to solidify this link of Enlightenment causing revolution and the intellectual perception of the Enlightenment itself.

However, this was not without the help of the scientific view of the world [of the Enlightenment], which wore down the "monarchical and religious dogma of the old regime".

For de Tocqueville, the Revolution was the inevitable result of the radical opposition created in the 18th century between the monarchy and the men of letters of the Enlightenment.

These men of letters constituted a sort of "substitute aristocracy that was both all-powerful and without real power". This illusory power came from the rise of "public opinion", born when absolutist centralization removed the nobility and the bourgeosie from the political sphere.

The "literary politics" that resulted promoted a discourse of equality and was hence in fundamental opposition to the monarchical regime.

However, there is a distinctly social quality to his analysis. In the words of Chartier, de Tocqueville "clearly designates In the meantime, though, intellectual history remained the dominant historiographical trend.

The German scholar Ernst Cassirer is typical, writing in his The Philosophy of the Enlightenment that the Enlightenment was " a part and a special phase of that whole intellectual development through which modern philosophic thought gained its characteristic self-confidence and self-consciousness".

Borrowing from Kant, Cassirer states that Enlightenment is the process by which the spirit "achieves clarity and depth in its understanding of its own nature and destiny, and of its own fundamental character and mission".

Age of Enlightenment Recent work Only in the s did interpretation of the Enlightenment allow for a more heterogeneous and even extra-European vision.

Owen Aldridge demonstrated how Enlightenment ideas spread to Spanish colonies and how they interacted with indigenous cultures, while Franco Venturi explored how the Enlightenment took place in normally unstudied areas — Italy, Greece, the Balkans, Poland, Hungary, and Russia.

He said, : "Perhaps the Enlightenment was a more down-to-earth affair than the rarefied climate of opinion described by textbook writers, and we should question the overly highbrow, overly metaphysical view of intellectual life in the eighteenth century.

In short, rather than concerning himself with Enlightenment canon, Darnton studies "what Frenchmen wanted to read", and who wrote, published and distributed it.

This is representative of the social interpretation as a whole — an examination of the social conditions that brought about Enlightenment ideas rather than a study of the ideas themselves.

The work of German philosopher Jürgen Habermas was central to this emerging social interpretation; his seminal work The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere published under the title Strukturwandel der Öffentlicheit in was translated into English in The book outlines the creation of the "bourgeois public sphere" in 18th century Europe.

Essentially, this public sphere describes the new venues and modes of communication allowing for rational exchange that appeared in the 18th century.

Habermas argued that the public sphere was bourgeois, egalitarian, rational, and independent from the state, making it the ideal venue for intellectuals to critically examine contemporary politics and society, away from the interference of established authority.

Habermas's work, though influential, has come under criticism on all fronts. While the public sphere is generally an integral component of social interpretations of the Enlightenment, numerous historians have brought into question whether the public sphere was bourgeois, oppositional to the state, independent from the state, or egalitarian.

In A Social History of Truth , for example, Steven Shapin makes the largely sociological argument that, in 17th-century England, the mode of sociability known as civility became the primary discourse of truth; for a statement to have the potential to be considered true, it had to be expressed according to the rules of civil society.

Feminist interpretations have also appeared, with Dena Goodman being one notable example. All this is not to say that intellectual interpretations no longer exist.

Like many historians before him, he sets the Enlightenment within the context of the French Revolution to follow.

Author of "Vom Tode für's Vaterland" On dying for one's nation. In his book De Philosophia Cartesiana Bekker argued that theology and philosophy each had their separate terrain and that Nature can no more be explained from Scripture than can theological truth be deduced from Nature.

Philosopher and mathematician famous Voltaire at age 70 for developing the theory of subjective idealism. Biographer of Samuel Johnson, helped established the norms for writing biography in general.

Buffon — French biologist. Author of L'Histoire Naturelle considered Natural Selection and the similarities between humans and apes. Parliamentarian and political philosopher, best known for pragmatism, considered important to both Enlightenment and conservative thinking.

Philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer. Historian, best known for his Antique History of Mexico.

Philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method.

Explored much of the Pacific including New Zealand, Australia, New Caledonia and Hawaii. Director of the Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences known now as the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Writer and playwright. First president of Paraguay. Introduced radical political ideas never-before seen in South America to Paraguay, making his country prosperous and more secure than any other in South-America.

Statesman, scientist, political philosopher, author. As a philosopher known for his writings on nationality, economic matters, aphorisms published in Poor Richard's Almanac and polemics in favor of American Independence.

Involved with writing the United States Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of Historian best known for his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.

Economist, political theorist and politician. A major protagonist for the Constitution of the United States, and the single greatest contributor to the Federalist Papers, advocating for the constitution's ratification through detailed examinations of its construction, philosophical and moral basis, and intent.

Theologian and linguist. Proposed that language determines thought, introduced concepts of ethnic study and nationalism, influential on later Romantic thinkers.

Early supporter of democracy and republican self rule. While Hobbes justifies absolute monarchy, this work is the first to posit that the temporal power of a monarch comes about, not because God has ordained that he be monarch, but because his subjects have freely yielded their own power and freedom to him - in other words, Hobbes replaces the divine right of kings with an early formulation of the social contract.

Hobbes' work was condemned by reformers for its defense of absolutism, and by traditionalists for its claim that the power of government derives from the power of its subjects rather than the will of God.

Author, encyclopaedist and Europe's first outspoken atheist. Roused much controversy over his criticism of religion as a whole in his work The System of Nature.

Performed the work which quantified such concepts as Boyle's Law and the inverse-square nature of gravitation, father of the science of microscopy.

Historian, philosopher and economist. Best known for his empiricism and rational skepticism, advanced doctrines of naturalism and material causes.

Influenced Kant and Adam Smith. Philosopher and physicist. Established critical philosophy on a systematic basis, proposed a material theory for the origin of the solar system, wrote on ethics and morals.

Prescribed a politics of Enlightenment in What is Enlightenment? Influenced by Hume and Isaac Newton.

Important figure in German Idealism, and important to the work of Fichte and Hegel. Statesman, political philosopher, educator. As a philosopher best known for the United States Declaration of Independence , especially "All men are created equal," and his support of democracy in theory and practice.

A polymath, he promoted higher education as a way to uplift the entire nation. Preeminent statesman. Government Constitution to assist in the document's implementation.

Leading poet of the Polish Enlightenment. Dramatist, critic, political philosopher. Important empiricist who expanded and extended the work of Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes.

Seminal thinker in the realm of the relationship between the state and the individual, the contractual basis of the state and the rule of law.

Argued for personal liberty emphasizing the rights of property. Polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science.

Statesman and political philosopher. Played a key role in the writing of the United States Constitution and providing a theoretical justification for it in his contributions to the Federalist Papers; author of the American Bill of Rights.

Philosopher of Jewish Enlightenment in Prussia Haskalah , honoured by his friend Lessing in his drama as Nathan the Wise. Philosopher, jurist, pre-evolutionary thinker and contributor to linguistic evolution.

He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, taken for granted in modern discussions of government and implemented in many constitutions all over the world.

Political scientist, Donald Lutz, found that Montesquieu was the most frequently quoted authority on government in colonial America.

Dramatist and translator, support of republicanism and free thinking. Transitional figure to Romanticism. A leading composer of the era.

Philanthropist and journalist who sought to raise the culture of Russian readers and publicly argued with the Empress. See Russian Enlightenment.

Polymath-poet, writer, historian, translator, engraver, editor, publisher, etc. Writer, linguist and influential proponent of Serbian cultural nationalism.

He also implemented sweeping economic policies to regulate commercial activity and standardize quality throughout the country.

Writer and philosopher. He brought the tradition of radicalism in Russian literature to prominence. Philosopher who developed Common Sense Realism.

He wrote The Wealth of Nations, in which he argued that wealth was not money in itself, but wealth was derived from the added value in manufactured items produced by both invested capital and labour.

He is sometimes considered to be the founding father of the laissez-faire economic theory, but in fact argues for some degree of government control in order to maintain equity.

Just prior to this he wrote Theory of Moral Sentiments, explaining how it is humans function and interact through what he calls sympathy, setting up important context for The Wealth of Nations.

Highly influential writer, historian and philosopher. He promoted Newtonian ism and denounced organized religion as pernicious.

References [1] Robert R. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution [2] Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd Edn revised [3] This section is taken largely from Roy Porter's book entitled The Enlightenment [4] Russell, Bertrand.

A History of Western Philosophy. The argument is expanded in Daniel Brewer, The Enlightenment Past: Reconstructing Eighteenth-Century French Thought Cambridge U.

Press, [6] Jonathan I. Israel, Enlightenment Contested, Oxford, , pp. Israel, Radical Enlightenment, Oxford, , p. Israel, , p. Israel, A revolution of the mind, Princeton University Press, , p.

Retrieved Livingstone and Charles W. Withers, Geography and Enlightenment [18] Stephen J. Lee, Aspects of European history, — pp.

Richter, ed. The Literature of Weimar Classicism [24] Samantha Owens et al. Music at German Courts, — Changing Artistic Priorities [25] Manfred Kuehn, Kant: A Biography The Society of the Enlightenment: The Rise of the Middle Class and Enlightenment Culture in Germany [27] David Daiches, Peter Jones and Jean Jones, A Hotbed of Genius: The Scottish Enlightenment, — [28] Bruce P.

The Enlightenment: An Interpretation. Landry, Marx and the postmodernism debates: an agenda for critical theory p.

D'Andrea, Tradition, rationality, and virtue: the thought of Alasdair MacIntyre p. Habermas, 14— Peter Burkholder, Donald J.

Grout and Claude V. Palisca, A History of Western Music, Seventh Edition, New York: W. Histoire, Sciences sociales, vol. This same desire for multiple witnesses led to attempts at replication in other locations and a complex iconography and literary technology developed to provide visual and written proof of experimentation.

See pages 59— See Rolf Engelsing, "Die Perioden der Lesergeschichte in der Neuzeit. Das statische Ausmass und die soziokulturelle Bedeutung der Lektüre", Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens, 10 , cols.

Martin's, , For a more detailed description of French censorship laws, see Darnton, The Literary Underground [72] Outram, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , , Kant, "What is Enlightenment?

As a result, the conclusions that he draws generally cannot, without further research, be applied to other cultural contexts. Andrew, "Popular Culture and Public Debate: London ", This Historical Journal, Vol.

June , pp. Andrew gives the name as "William Henley", which must be a lapse of writing. Bullock, "Initiating the Enlightenment?

Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution: The struggle p. York, "Freemasons and the American Revolution", The Historian Volume: Issue: 2. ISBN See also Janet M.

Burke, "Freemasonry, Friendship and Noblewomen: The Role of the Secret Society in Bringing Enlightenment Thought to Pre-Revolutionary Women Elites", History of European Ideas 10 no.

Jacob's seminal work on Enlightenment freemasonry, Margaret C. Jacob, Living the Enlightenment: Free masonry and Politics in Eighteenth-Century Europe, New York: Oxford University Press, The past tense is used deliberately as whether man would educate himself or be educated by certain exemplary figures was a common issue at the time.

See also, A. Owen Alridge ed. The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers. Historical Dictionary of the Enlightenment.

The Enlightenment: The Rise of Modern Paganism , 2nd ed. The Enlightenment World. Enlightenment: A Comparative Social History, — England.

The Enlightenment 2nd ed. The Blackwell Companion to the Enlightenment. Owen ed. The Ibero-American Enlightenment The Historical Journal, Vol.

June , pp — The Enlightenment Past: reconstructing 18th-century French thought. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. The Cultural Origins of the French Revolution.

Translated by Lydia G. Duke University Press, New Haven: Yale University Press, The Literary Underground of the Old Regime.

The Republic of Letters: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment. The Other Enlightenment: How French Women Became Modern.

Princeton: Princeton University Press, Science and the Enlightenment Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, — A Revolution of the Mind - Radical Enlightenment and the Intellectual Origins of Modern Democracy.

The Enlightenment in America. The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe. The Creation of the Modern World: The Untold Story of the British Enlightenment.

Philadelphia's Enlightenment, — Kingdom of Christ, Empire of Reason. France in the Enlightenment. Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding.

Mozart and the Enlightenment: Truth, Virtue, and Beauty in Mozart's Operas. Utopia and Reform in the Enlightenment. George Macaulay Trevelyan Lecture, Rameau's Nephew and First Satire.

Science in the Age of Enlightenment The scientific history of the Age of Enlightenment traces developments in science and technology during the Age of Reason, when Enlightenment ideas and ideals were being disseminated across Europe and North America.

Generally, the period spans from the final days of the 16th and 17th-century Scientific revolution until roughly the 19th century, after the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era — By the 18th century, scientific authority began to displace religious authority, and the disciplines of alchemy and Table of astronomy, from the Cyclopaedia astrology lost scientific credibility.

While the Enlightenment cannot be pigeonholed into a specific doctrine or set of dogmas, science came to play a leading role in Enlightenment discourse and thought.

Many Enlightenment writers and thinkers had backgrounds in the sciences and associated scientific advancement with the overthrow of religion and traditional authority in favour of the development of free speech and thought.

Broadly speaking, Enlightenment science greatly valued empiricism and rational thought, and was embedded with the Enlightenment ideal of advancement and progress.

As with most Enlightenment views, the benefits of science were not seen universally; Jean-Jacques Rousseau criticized the sciences for distancing man from nature and not operating to make people happier.

Science during the Enlightenment was dominated by scientific societies and academies, which had largely replaced universities as centres of scientific research and development.

Societies and academies were also the backbone of the maturation of the scientific profession. Another important development was the popularization of science among an increasingly literate population.

Universities The number of universities in Europe remained relatively constant throughout the 18th century. Europe had about universities and colleges by North America had 44, including the newly founded Harvard and Yale.

The universities themselves existed primarily to educate future physicians, lawyers and The original building at Yale, — members of the clergy.

The study of science under the heading of natural philosophy was divided into physics and a conglomerate grouping of chemistry and natural history, which included anatomy, biology, geology, mineralogy, and zoology.

A notable exception were universities in Spain, which under the influence of Catholicism focused almost entirely on Aristotelian natural philosophy until the midth century; they were among the last universities to do so.

Another exception occurred in the universities of Germany and Scandinavia, where University of Halle professor Christian Wolff taught a form of Cartesianism modified by Leibnizian physics.

Before the 18th century, science courses were taught almost exclusively through formal lectures. The structure of courses began to change in the first decades of the 18th century, when physical demonstrations were added to lectures.

Experiments ranged from swinging a bucket of water at the end of a rope, demonstrating that centrifugal force would hold the water in the bucket, to more impressive experiments involving the use of an air-pump.

Some attempts at reforming the structure of the science curriculum were made during the 18th-century and the first decades of the 19th century.

Beginning around , the Hats party in Sweden made propositions to reform the university system by separating natural philosophy into two separate faculties of physics and mathematics.

However, the reform did not survive beyond and the Third Partition. The state of Belgium-Holland employed the same system in However, the other countries of Europe did not adopt a similar division of the faculties until the midth century.

Universities in France tended to serve a downplayed role in the development of science during the Enlightenment; that role was dominated by the scientific academies, such as the French Academy of Sciences.

The contributions of universities in Britain were mixed. On the one hand, the University of Cambridge began teaching Newtonianism early in the Enlightenment, but failed to become a central force behind the advancement of science.

On the other end of the spectrum were Scottish universities, which had strong medical faculties and became centres of scientific development.

Christian Wolff's unique The old entrance to the University of Göttingen. The University of Göttingen, founded in , was far more liberal than its counterparts, allowing professors to plan their own courses and select their own textbooks.

Göttingen also emphasized research and publication. Most of the new institutions emphasized mathematics as a discipline, making them popular with professions that required some working knowledge of mathematics, such as merchants, military and naval officers, and engineers.

Societies and Academies Scientific academies and societies grew out of the Scientific Revolution as the creators of scientific knowledge in contrast to the scholasticism of the university.

After a tremendous number of official academies and societies were founded in Europe and by there were over seventy official scientific societies.

At the turn of the century, the Academia Scientiarum Imperialis in St. Petersburg, and the Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences were created.

Regional and provincial societies emerged out of the 18th century in Bologna, Bordeaux, Copenhagen, Dijon, Lyons, Montpellier and Uppsala.

Following this initial period of growth, societies were founded between and in Barcelona, Brussels, Dublin, Edinburgh, Göttingen, Mannheim, Munich, Padua and Turin.

The development of unchartered societies, such as the private the Naturforschende Gesellschaft of Danzig and Lunar Society of Birmingham — , occurred alongside the growth of national, regional and provincial societies.

Official scientific societies were chartered by the state in order to provide technical expertise. State sponsorship was beneficial to the societies as it brought finance and recognition, along with a measure of freedom in management.

Most societies were granted permission to oversee their own publications, control the election of new members, and the administration of the society.

Kunstkammer in Saint Petersburg. In some societies, members were required to pay an annual fee to participate. For example, the Royal Society depended on contributions from its members, which excluded a wide range of artisans and mathematicians on account of the expense.

A dialogue of formal communication also developed between societies and society in general through the publication of scientific journals.

Periodicals offered society members the opportunity to publish, and for their ideas to be consumed by other scientific societies and the literate public.

Scientific journals, readily accessible to members of learned societies, became the most important form of publication for scientists during the Enlightenment.

Periodicals Academies and societies served to disseminate Enlightenment science by publishing the scientific works of their members, as well as their proceedings.

At the beginning of the 18th century, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, published by the Royal Society of London, was the only scientific periodical being published on a regular, quarterly basis.

The Paris Academy of Sciences, formed in , began publishing in volumes of memoirs rather than a quarterly journal, with periods between volumes sometimes lasting years.

Smaller periodicals, such as Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, were only published when enough content was available to complete a volume.

At one point the period extended to seven years. The limitations of such academic journals left considerable space for the rise of independent periodicals.

Independent periodicals were published throughout the Enlightenment and excited scientific interest in the general public. First, they increased in number and size.

There was also a move away from publishing in Latin in favour of publishing in the vernacular. Experimental descriptions became more detailed and began to be accompanied by reviews.

The journal allowed new scientific developments to be published relatively quickly compared to annuals and quarterlies.

A third important change was the specialization seen in the new development of disciplinary journals. Encyclopedias and dictionaries Although the existence of dictionaries and encyclopedias spanned into ancient times, and would be nothing new to Enlightenment readers, the texts changed from simply defining words in a long running list to far more detailed discussions of those words in 18th-century encyclopedic dictionaries.

Volumes tended to focus more strongly on secular affairs, particularly science and technology, rather than matters of theology.

Along with secular matters, readers also favoured an alphabetical ordering scheme over cumbersome works arranged along thematic lines. Revolution — Published in , the Lexicon technicum was the first book to be written in English that took a methodical approach to describing mathematics and commercial arithmetic along with the physical sciences and navigation.

The folio edition of the work even included foldout engravings. The Cyclopaedia emphasized Newtonian theories, Lockean philosophy, and contained thorough examinations of technologies, such as engraving, brewing, and dyeing.

In Germany, practical reference works intended for the uneducated majority became popular in the 18th century. The Marperger Curieuses Natur-, Kunst-, Berg-, Gewerkund Handlungs-Lexicon explained terms that usefully described the trades and scientific and commercial education.

Jablonksi Allgemeines Lexicon was better known than the Handlungs-Lexicon, and underscored technical subjects rather than scientific theory.

For example, over five columns of text were dedicated to wine, while geometry and logic were allocated only twenty-two and seventeen lines, respectively.

However, the prime example of reference works that systematized scientific knowledge in the age of Enlightenment were universal encyclopedias rather than technical dictionaries.

It was the goal of universal encyclopedias to record all human knowledge in a comprehensive reference work. The work, which began publication in , was composed of thirty-five volumes and over 71 separate entries.

A great number of the entries were dedicated to describing the sciences and crafts in detail. As a Reasoned Dictionary. Both areas of knowledge were united by philosophy, or the trunk of the tree of knowledge.

Popularization of science One of the most important developments that the Enlightenment era brought to the discipline of science was its popularization.

An increasingly literate population seeking knowledge and education in both the arts and the sciences drove the expansion of print culture and the dissemination of scientific learning.

The new literate population was due to a high rise in the availability of food. This enabled many people to rise out of poverty, and instead of paying more for food, they had money for education.

British coffeehouses An early example of science emanating from the official institutions into the public realm was the British coffeehouse.

With the establishment of coffeehouses, a new public forum for political, philosophical and scientific discourse was created.

In the midth century, coffeehouses cropped up around Oxford, where the academic community began to capitalize on the unregulated conversation that the coffeehouse allowed.

Education was a central theme and some patrons began offering lessons and lectures to others. As coffeehouses developed in London, customers heard lectures on scientific subjects, such as astronomy and mathematics, for an exceedingly low price.

Public lectures Public lecture courses offered some scientists who were unaffiliated with official organizations a forum to transmit scientific knowledge, at times even their own ideas, and the opportunity to carve out a reputation and, in some instances, a living.

The public, on the other hand, gained both knowledge and entertainment from demonstration lectures. Class sizes ranged from one hundred to four or five hundred attendees.

Courses were offered at virtually any time of day; the latest occurred at or at night. One of the most popular start times was pm, allowing the working population to participate and signifying the attendance of the nonelite.

Generally, individuals presenting the lectures did not adhere to any particular brand of physics, but rather demonstrated a combination of different theories.

In the demonstration, a young boy would be suspended from the ceiling, horizontal to the floor, with silk chords.

An electrical machine would then be used to electrify the boy. Essentially becoming a magnet, he would then attract a collection of items scattered about him by the lecturer.

Popular science in print Increasing literacy rates in Europe during the course of the Enlightenment enabled science to enter popular culture through print.

More formal works included explanations of scientific theories for individuals lacking the educational background to comprehend the original scientific text.

The publication of Bernard de Fontenelle's Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds marked the first significant work that expressed scientific theory and knowledge expressly for the laity, in the vernacular, and with the entertainment of readers in mind.

The book was produced specifically for women with an interest in scientific writing and inspired a variety of similar works.

A similar introduction to Newtonianism for women was produced by Henry Pembarton. Extant records of subscribers show that women from a wide range of social standings purchased the book, indicating the growing number of scientifically inclined female readers among the middling class.

Sarah Trimmer wrote a successful natural history textbook for children entitled The Easy Introduction to the Knowledge of Nature , which was published for many years after in eleven editions.

The influence of science also began appearing more commonly in poetry and literature during the Enlightenment. Some poetry became infused with scientific metaphor and imagery, while other poems were written directly about scientific topics.

Sir Richard Blackmore committed the Newtonian system to verse in Creation, a Philosophical Poem in Seven Books Other antiscience writers, including William Blake, chastised scientists for attempting to use physics, mechanics and mathematics to simplify the complexities of the universe, particularly in relation to God.

The character of the evil scientist was invoked during this period in the romantic tradition. For example, the characterization of the scientist as a nefarious manipulator in the work of Ernst Theodor Wilhelm Hoffmann.

Women in science During the Enlightenment era, women were excluded from scientific societies, universities and learned professions. Women were educated, if at all, through self-study, tutors, and by the teachings of more open-minded fathers.

In fact, restrictions were so severe in the 18th century that women, including midwives, were forbidden to use forceps.

Over the course of the 18th century, male surgeons began to assume the role of midwives in gynaecology. Some male satirists also ridiculed scientifically minded women, describing them as A portrait of Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova by Dmitry Levitzky.

To be pleasing in his sight, to win his respect and love, to train him in childhood, to tend him in manhood, to counsel and console, to make his life pleasant and happy, these are the duties of woman for all time, and this is what she should be taught while she is young.

Despite these limitations, there was support for women in the sciences among some men, and many made valuable contributions to science during the 18th century.

Two notable women who managed to participate in formal institutions were Laura Bassi and the Russian Princess Yekaterina Dashkova. Bassi was an Italian physicist who received a PhD from the University of Bologna and began teaching there in Dashkova became the director of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences of St.

Petersburg in Her personal relationship with Czarina Catherine the Great r. More commonly, women participated in the sciences through an association with a male relative or spouse.

Caroline Herschel began her astronomical career, although somewhat reluctantly at first, by assisting her brother William Herschel. Caroline Herschel is most Portrait of M.

On August 1, , Herschel discovered her first comet, much to the excitement of scientifically minded women.

Eva Ekeblad became the first woman inducted in to the Royal Swedish Academy of Science Many other women became illustrators or translators of scientific texts.

Englishwoman Mary Delany developed a unique method of illustration. Her technique involved using hundreds of pieces of coloured-paper to recreate lifelike renditions of living plants.

Noblewomen sometimes cultivated their own botanical gardens, including Mary Somerset and Margaret Harley. Scientific translation sometimes required more than a grasp on multiple languages.

Astronomy Building on the body of work forwarded by Copernicus, Kepler and Newton, 18th-century astronomers refined telescopes, produced star catalogues, and worked towards explaining the motions of heavenly bodies and the consequences of universal gravitation.

When he compared the ancient positions of stars to their contemporary positions, he found that they had shifted. The discovery was proof of a heliocentric model of the universe, since it is the revolution of the earth around the sun that causes an apparent motion in the observed position of a star.

The discovery also led Bradley to a fairly close estimate to the speed of light. During the transit of Venus, the Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov observed a ring of light around the planet.

Lomonosov attributed the ring to the refraction of sunlight, which he correctly hypothesized was caused by the atmosphere of Venus.

Further evidence of Venus' atmosphere was gathered in observations by Johann Hieronymus Schröter in However, much astronomical work of the period becomes shadowed by one of the most dramatic scientific discoveries of the 18th-century.

On 13 March , amateur astronomer William William Herschel's 40 foot 12 m telescope. Herschel spotted a new planet with his powerful reflecting telescope.

Initially identified as a comet, the celestial body later came to be accepted as a planet. The name Uranus, as proposed by Johann Bode, came into widespread usage after Herschel's death.

Michell postulated that if the density of a stellar object became great enough, its attractive force would become so large that even light could not escape.

While differing somewhat from a black hole, the dark star can be understood as a predecessor to the black holes resulting from Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity.

Chemistry The chemical revolution was a period in the 18th century marked by significant advancements in the theory and practice of chemistry.

Despite the maturity of most of the sciences during the scientific revolution, by the midth century chemistry had yet to outline a systematic framework or theoretical doctrine.

Elements of alchemy still permeated the study of chemistry, and the belief that the natural world was composed of the classical elements of earth, water, air and fire remained prevalent.

The resulting product was termed calx, which was considered a 'dephlogisticated' substance in its 'true' form.

Science in the Age of Enlightenment Lavoisier subsequently discovered and named oxygen, described its role in animal respiration[89] and the calcination of metals exposed to air — In , Lavoisier found that water was a compound of oxygen and hydrogen.

For example, burned lead was of the genus oxide and species lead. The new chemistry was established in Glasgow and Edinburgh early in the s, but was slow to become established in Germany.

Notes [1] Burns , entry: 7, Margaret Jacob offers a more specific analysis of lecturers in Holland and England in The Cultural Meaning of the Scientific Revolution New York: Knopf, Butterfield, "Chapter 11" of The Origins of Modern Science: New York: Macmillan, for this traditional view.

References Burns, William E. Science in the Enlightenment. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Butterfield, H.

The Origins of Modern Science: New York: Macmillan. Butts, Freeman R. New York: McGraw-Hill. Conant, James Bryant, ed. The Overthrow of the Phlogiston Theory: The Chemical Revolution of Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Cowen, Brian William. The Social Life of Coffee: The Emergence of the British Coffeehouse. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia of Diderot. Richard N. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. Darnton, Robert. Daston, Lorraine.

The Academies and the Utility of Knowledge: The Discipline of the Disciplines. Differences vol. Gillispie, Charles C. Science and Polity in France at the end of the Old Regime.

Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Headrick, Daniel R. When Information Came of Age: Technologies of Knowledge in the Age of Reason and Revolution, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hoskin, Michael, ed. The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Idhe, Aaron J.

The Development of Modern Chemistry. Jacob, Margaret C. The Cultural Meaning of the Scientific Revolution.

Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Kors, Alan Charles, ed. Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment.

Littmann, Mark. Planets Beyond: Discovering the Outer Solar System. New York: Courier Dover Publications.

Lynn, Michael R. Popular science and public opinion in eighteenth-century France. Manchester, UK; New York: Manchester University Press; New York : Palgrave.

Mason, Stephen F. A History of the Sciences. New York: Collier Books. McClellan, James E. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

McClellan, James Edward and Harold Dorn

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