50 years ago, the Munich Olympics massacre changed how we think about terrorism (2022)

It was just after 4 a.m. when an attack that would shock the world began — quietly.

Eight men in tracksuits hopped the fence at Munich's Olympic Village, carrying with them Kalashnikov rifles and grenades in duffel bags.

They were members of the group Black September — an affiliate of the Palestine Liberation Organization. Their mission was to hold Israeli athletes hostage and demand the release of 236 prisoners: 234 in Israel and the two leaders of the West German Baader-Meinhof terrorist group.

Their mission failed. About 20 hours after it began, five of the hostage-takers would be dead, along with 11 members of Israel's Olympic team and a West German policeman.

But the Munich massacre of Sept. 5 to 6, 1972, would have lasting repercussions on an international scale, waking up Western governments to the threat of terrorism, showing the power of live broadcast and setting the stage for future violence.

"The cheerful Games"

50 years ago, the Munich Olympics massacre changed how we think about terrorism (1)

/ AFP via Getty Images

/

AFP via Getty Images

Munich 1972 was supposed to be the opposite of Berlin 1936. Nearly three decades after the Holocaust, West German authorities went to pains to try to erase symbolism of the country's Nazi past. The light blue Olympic emblem, "Radiant Munich," as the International Olympic Committee notes, symbolized "light, freshness, generosity." The event's motto was "the cheerful Games."

"They wanted to come across as playful, as laid back, congenial. Not a police state," says David Clay Large, a senior fellow at the Institute of European Studies at the University of California, Berkeley and the author of Munich 1972: Tragedy, Terror, and Triumph at the Olympic Games.

Authorities were aware of security threats, but they were coming from different directions. There was the Red Army Faction, Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof's leftist group, which had carried out bombings in West Germany that year. The far-right National Democratic Party of Germany was a concern, as were other groups, Large says.

Despite warnings, the idea of a Palestinian group carrying out an attack was not "at the top of their list for possible dangers," Large says.

The Games had already gone on for 10 days without a serious incident, and security officials had let down their guard. The gunmen, having already scouted the location, easily slipped into the building that housed the Israelis. They knew which apartment to go to.

Black September ended up with nine hostages, after killing wrestling coach Moshe Weinberg and weightlifter Yossef Romano, who had both fought back against the attackers.

The group demanded the release of 236 prisoners, most of them Palestinians in Israeli custody, and threatened to kill hostages otherwise.

As West German authorities scrambled to figure out how to respond that morning, the Games resumed as normal. It was at least seven hours into the hostage situation by the time events were halted.

The hostage crisis was viewed globally as it unfolded

50 years ago, the Munich Olympics massacre changed how we think about terrorism (2)

Keystone / Hulton Archive/Getty Images

/

Hulton Archive/Getty Images

(Video) The 1972 Munich Olympics massacre | DW Documentary

When television networks finally switched to covering the hostage crisis, it created the aspect of the attack most notable today: It was the first time a terrorist incident had reached a global audience during a live broadcast.

At the Olympic press center, 11 monitors showed the ongoing athletic events while another three were trained on the building where the Israelis were being held hostage. Dave Marash was a CBS Radio reporter at the time. "Those simultaneous images flickering on those monitors struck me as the most incongruous, most inappropriate, most flat surreal visual memory of my life," he told NPR in 2002.

The hours dragged on as West German authorities worked to buy time. Their response was uncoordinated. Security was in the hands of state authorities, not federal ones. They had no expertise in dealing with hostage situations. Calling in the army wasn't an option — West Germany's postwar constitution limited the domestic use of the army during peacetime.

"What they tried to do was negotiate their way out. That was their only recourse," Large says. But the West Germans had no way to give Black September the main thing it wanted: the release of the prisoners. Israel's prime minister, Golda Meir, said no. She told the West Germans they were responsible for getting the hostages out.

The West Germans came up with a plan. Black September was told it would be able to take a plane with its hostages to Cairo. On the plane would be West German police disguised as members of the plane's crew, who would overpower the terrorists.

Late that evening, the gunmen and their hostages were flown by helicopters to the Fürstenfeldbruck air base outside Munich, where the plane was waiting.

Significant problems immediately became apparent. The police officers who were supposed to be on the plane backed out, saying it was too dangerous. Plan B was to use snipers to kill the hostage-takers as they emerged from the helicopters and tried to board the plane. But the police had no expert snipers and no proper equipment. And they didn't know how many Black September members were in the group.

50 years ago, the Munich Olympics massacre changed how we think about terrorism (3)

/ AP

/

AP

"The attempt to pick off these commandos turned out to be an absolute fiasco," Large says. "They ended up shooting five of them, five of the eight commandos, but not before the commandos then killed in cold blood all of the remaining nine hostages."

A West German policeman was also killed in the exchange of gunfire. Three of the Black September members escaped but were soon captured.

Initial reports coming out of the air base said the rescue was a success. It wasn't until early on Sept. 6 that officials confirmed that all the Israelis had been killed.

ABC sportscaster Jim McKay, who had anchored coverage throughout the day, made the announcement to world audiences at 3:24 a.m.: "They're all gone."

New exposure for acts of terrorism and the Palestinian cause

50 years ago, the Munich Olympics massacre changed how we think about terrorism (4)

/ AFP via Getty Images

/

AFP via Getty Images

(Video) Watch live: Memorial for 1972 Munich Olympics massacre | DW News

About 900 million people are believed to have watched the hostage crisis on television.

"From start to finish, it was the first time terrorists had hijacked a televised event and turned it into their own drama," says Bruce Hoffman, a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations who has studied terrorism for decades.

In 1968, about 11 international terrorist groups were operating. A few years after the Munich massacre, that number was more than 50, Hoffman says. A large reason for that was the global attention the attack received.

"I think other aggrieved persons saw terrorism as a vehicle to attract attention to themselves and their cause and also coerce governments. I mean, you had these small nonstate actors ... with limited weaponry and constrained capacity for violence, forcing governments to deal with them," Hoffman says.

The impetus for the attack, of course, did not come out of nowhere, having its origins in the long-running Israeli-Palestinian conflict and a conflict between Jordan and the PLO.

50 years ago, the Munich Olympics massacre changed how we think about terrorism (5)

Hulton Archive / Getty Images

/

Getty Images

The incident, though horrific, gave new attention to the Palestinian cause. More than a million Palestinians had been refugees since Israel's creation in 1948 and the wars that followed, but global powers had been largely ignoring their plight.

Khaled Elgindy, a senior fellow at the Middle East Institute and the director of its Program on Palestine and Palestinian-Israeli Affairs, notes that the U.S. and the Soviets were preoccupied with the Cold War.

The Munich attack, as well as other terrorism connected to the PLO, "was really a double-edged sword," he says. "It brought attention to the Palestinian issue, but it's mostly negative attention."

He says it was likely part of a two-pronged approach by the PLO: active diplomacy combined with militant attacks that were carried out with plausible deniability.

"And these kinds of violent attacks actually succeed in putting the issue on the international agenda," Elgindy says. From there, the PLO notched two diplomatic wins: 20 Arab League countries recognized the organization as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people" in October 1974. A month later, the United Nations gave the PLO observer status.

Israel begins a sweeping retaliation

50 years ago, the Munich Olympics massacre changed how we think about terrorism (6)

Evening Standard / Getty Images

/

Getty Images

(Video) Why The Munich Olympic Massacre Was Worse Than You Thought

Palestinian militants had previously hijacked several planes in incidents starting in 1968, and Japanese terrorists recruited by a Palestinian group massacred 26 people at Israel's Lod Airport in May 1972.

But Israel considered the brazenness of an attack against its athletes to be a new extreme.

In the days after the Munich massacre, Israel launched airstrikes and raids on PLO bases in Syria and Lebanon, destroying bridges and houses. Over 200 people may have been killed, including women and children, according to Large.

Relations between West Germany and Israel had been improving since the mid-1960s but were now at another low point after the attack during the Olympics. Tensions were further inflamed less than two months later when Black September sympathizers hijacked a Lufthansa flight on Oct. 29, 1972, demanding that the three Black September members in West German detention be freed.

The West Germans quickly complied. The three surviving perpetrators of the Munich massacre arrived in Libya to a hero's welcome, given refuge by Moammar Gadhafi.

Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir was enraged. She authorized Israeli assassination squads to take out those involved in planning the Munich attack. Operation Wrath of God lasted some 20 years.

Accounts vary on how many people directly connected to the attack were killed by Israel. In one infamous case, agents killed a waiter in Norway whom they mistook for a PLO official.

"They didn't get all the culpable figures involved," though they did kill some innocent people, Large says. "This was not a delicate operation on the part of Israel. And it further inflamed the extreme tensions in the Middle East."

The attack spurred the development of counterterrorism forces

50 years ago, the Munich Olympics massacre changed how we think about terrorism (7)

Andreas Rentz / Getty Images

/

Getty Images

It's impossible to capture every ripple effect of the attack, but terrorism scholars note that one distinct change was in how Western governments thought about international terrorism as a threat, long before the 9/11 attacks.

"If Germany suffered such a gruesome, huge attack and failed so colossally, then we could be next. So we better prep," says Ronit Berger Hobson, outlining what governments were thinking at the time.

Hobson, a lecturer in politics and international relations at Queen's University Belfast, recently outlined the international security response to the Munich massacre in an article in the journal Israel Affairs, co-authored with professor Ami Pedahzur of the University of Texas at Austin.

Multiple governments created new special forces to respond to hostage situations and terrorism — they never had them before. West Germany promptly organized the GSG 9 police unit. France, Britain and the U.S. followed with similar forces, as part of the police or the military.

Israel already had its Sayeret Matkal unit, which had origins in intelligence-gathering. (During the hostage crisis, Israel offered to send this force in, but West Germany rejected the help.) But the Munich attack and others led to a proliferation of special forces units within Israel's security services with a renewed focus on counterterrorism, Hobson says.

(Video) Germany: Veteran athlete Mark Spitz looks back at 1972 Munich Olympics massacre | Latest | WION

Those special forces were able to demonstrate successes in the years that followed. In 1976, Israeli forces successfully rescued hostages in Entebbe, Uganda. The GSG 9 succeeded in freeing hostages from a hijacked plane in Somalia in 1977. As Hobson and Pedahzur note, France's Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale freed hostages aboard an Air France flight in 1994.

Some missions failed as well, including when terrorists killed or injured most hostages in Ma'alot, Israel, in 1974 and the U.S. attempt to rescue hostages at the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, Iran, in 1980.

The Olympics were forever changed

50 years ago, the Munich Olympics massacre changed how we think about terrorism (8)

Keystone / Getty Images

/

Getty Images

The Olympic Games were suspended for a total of 34 hours, with a memorial for the Israelis held in the main competition stadium the morning of Sept. 6. But International Olympic Committee President Avery Brundage declared that the "Games must go on."

The remaining members of the Israeli team quickly flew home, under orders from Meir.

Shaul Ladany, now 86, a racewalker who survived the attack by escaping early on, said he would have liked to have stayed for the remainder of the Games.

Countries hostile to Israel had tried unsuccessfully to keep Israel from competing in various sports forums, he told NPR. "After we lost 11 of our people, with our own hand we gave them that satisfaction that they kicked us out of the Olympic Games."

From a security standpoint, the Olympics would never be the same.

Organizers of subsequent Games were forced to devote more to prevent future attacks. "The security budgets just dramatically shot up," says Large, with the 1976 Montreal Olympics spending 50 times more on security than Munich had spent. China spent $6.5 billion on security alone for the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

The trend toward ballooning security budgets — for personnel, surveillance, equipment, infrastructure and more — continues to the present, one of the factors that make any government think hard about costs before offering a bid.

50 years ago, the Munich Olympics massacre changed how we think about terrorism (9)

Mike Hewitt / Getty Images

/

Getty Images

Perhaps the security budgets have kept the events of Munich from being repeated — though terrorism would strike the Olympics again in Atlanta in 1996, when a bomb exploded, killing one person directly and another person indirectly and injuring more than 100.

It was a half-century ago that Munich presaged for the world the era of international terrorism — only fully crystallized to Americans on 9/11.

(Video) 'We're ashamed': Germany seeks forgiveness from Israel over 1972 Munich massacre

"It was basically sending the message, because the theme of the Olympics is peace and cooperation. And if the Olympics weren't safe, nothing would be," says Hoffman, the terrorism researcher. "It ushered in, I think, the modern era of terrorism that we're still enmeshed in today and can't escape."

The book One Day in September by Simon Reeve served as an additional resource for this story.

Copyright 2022 NPR. To see more, visit https://www.npr.org.

FAQs

What happened at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich and why was this significant? ›

Fifty years ago Monday, on Sept. 5, 1972, Palestinian extremists infiltrated athletes' dorms at the Munich Summer Olympics, an attack that resulted in the murder of 11 Israeli athletes and coaches and a German police officer and set off an international crisis.

What was the massacre at the Munich Olympics? ›

The Munich massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, by eight members of the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, who infiltrated the Olympic Village, killed two members of the Israeli Olympic team, and took nine others hostage.

How many Israeli athletes were killed in the Munich Olympics? ›

Palestinian militants killed 11 Israeli athletes at the Olympic Games in 1972. Decades later Germany asked the victims' families for forgiveness for not keeping the delegation safe.

Who was killed in the Munich massacre? ›

Eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were killed. Top row, from left to right: Amitzur Shapira, David Berger, Eliezer Halfin, Yossef Romano, Kehat Shorr. Bottom row: Moshe Weinberg, Mark Slavin, Yakov Springer, Yossef Gutfreund, and Andre Spitzer.

What caused the Munich massacre? ›

On the morning of September 5, Palestinian terrorists in ski masks ambushed the Israeli team. After negotiations to free the nine Israelis broke down, the terrorists took the hostages to the Munich airport. Once there, German police opened fire from rooftops and killed three of the terrorists.

Is Munich true story? ›

While Legat and von Hartmann are fictional characters — the creations of speculative history novelist Robert Harris — the situations around them are largely based in reality. The Munich accords, held in September 1938, are regarded today as a shortsighted pit stop along the road to World War II.

When did the Munich massacre happen? ›

During what major athletic competition did the Munich massacre occur apex? ›

Munich massacre, terrorist attack on Israeli Olympic team members at the 1972 Summer Games in Munich orchestrated by affiliates of the Palestinian militant group Black September. The Munich Games marked the first return of the Olympics to a German city since the 1936 Games in Berlin.

Why did Black September happen? ›

A civil war in Jordan from September 1970-July 1971, which began after several failed assassination attempts on the Jordanian king and the hijacking of three airplanes. The conflict centered on whether Jordan would be controlled by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) or the Hashemite monarchy.

Which country started Olympic Games? ›

The history of the Games goes back around 3,000 years, to the Peloponnese in Ancient Greece. Sports contests organised at Olympia took place every four years and acquired the name Olympic Games. We do not know exactly when they started, but the date of 776 BC is often cited in written sources.

When did Black September happen? ›

Which areas were gained by Israel after the Six Day War Select 3? ›

The Six-Day War ended with Israel capturing the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank, including East Jerusalem.

Who was the prime minister of Israel during the Munich massacre? ›

Authorized by Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir in the autumn of 1972, the operation is believed to have continued for over twenty years. The operation was depicted in the television film Sword of Gideon (1986) and Steven Spielberg's film Munich (2005).

What happened on September 5th 1972? ›

5 Sept, 1972 Israel Athletes Attacked During Olympics

During the transfer of the terrorists and their captives from helicopters to the aircraft German police mounted an attack during which all the Israeli hostages were killed and 3 of the terrorists.

What happen in 1972? ›

June 9 – The Black Hills flood kills 238 in South Dakota. June 12 – The first Popeyes opens in Arabi, Louisiana. June 14–23 – Hurricane Agnes kills 117 on the U.S. east coast. June 15–18 – The first U.S. Libertarian Party National Convention is held in Denver, Colorado.

What animal was the first official Olympic mascot? ›

Waldi was the first official mascot in the history of the Olympic Summer Games. He is a dachshund, a very popular animal in Bavaria, famed for its endurance, tenacity and agility.

What is the meaning of Munich? ›

Meaning of Munich in English

Munich. /ˈmjuː.nɪk/ us. /ˈmjuː.nɪk/ a city in southern Germany that is the capital city of the state of Bavaria.

What is Munich famous for? ›

Munich, Germany, is known for being Germany's most productive urban city. Bavaria's capital is also famed for its beer gardens, festivals, architecture, food, public parks, shopping opportunities, and historical museums.

How does Munich end? ›

In the final act of Munich - The Edge of War, Paul finally sits down with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and tries to convince him that Hitler is a threat to the entire continent. According to him, Hitler's demands at the peace summit were nothing but a stepping stone in his quest to conquer Europe.

Where were the 1972 Olympics? ›

Where was the 1976 Olympics held? ›

What does terrorism mean to you? ›

Terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom. Terrorists often use threats to: • Create fear among the public.

Who are the Hamas in Palestine? ›

HAMAS formed in late 1987 at the beginning of the first Palestinian intifada (uprising). Its roots are in the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, and it is supported by a robust sociopolitical structure inside the Palestinian territories.

Where is Jordan USA? ›

Where is Jordan Located? Jordan is located in the Middle East and borders Syria, Saudi Arabia, the Red Sea, Palestine, Israel, and Iraq. Covering some 89,342 sq.km., it is located at 31 00 N, 36 00 E.

Which sports can you start late? ›

Shooting. Shooting, like archery, is a sport that's easier for people to start later in life because you don't have to have a particular body shape or size to participate. In fact, athletes competing in the 2016 Rio Olympics ranged in age from 16 to 55, with most falling between 26 and 40.

Why do we need Olympics? ›

The Olympic Games are an international sports festival, held every four years. The ultimate goals are to cultivate human beings, through sport, and contribute to world peace. Summer Games and Winter Games are held separately.

Which one is not an Olympic sport? ›

Cricket, a British sport, is the second most watched sport in the world, with over 2.5 billion fans. Despite its massive fandom, cricket is not a part of the Olympics. It was in the first modern Games in 1896, but was later withdrawn due to a lack of entrants.

What is a Black September? ›

1970s. A conflict, now known as Black September, breaks out between the PLO and the Jordanian Armed Forces. Thousands of Palestine refugees are expelled from the country, and the PLO leadership moves from Jordan to Lebanon.

Why is it called the Oslo accords? ›

The Oslo Accords were signed in the White House, but named after Norway's capital city, where the secret negotiations took place.

What is the goal of the PLO? ›

The Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO) was founded in 1964 with the purpose of liberating Palestine, achieving Palestinian self-determination, and securing the return of the refugees. It was conceived at an Arab League summit in Cairo, and backed the use of armed struggle to achieve its goals.

What was the Six-Day War and what impact did it make? ›

Six memorable days, known to Israelis as the Six-Day War and to Arabs and others as the 1967 War, redrew the region's landscape in fundamental ways. In those six days, Israel defeated three Arab armies, gained territory four times its original size, and became the preeminent military power in the region.

Does Israel recognize Palestine? ›

The Israeli government has accepted in general the idea that a Palestinian state is to be established, but has refused to accept the 1967 borders.

Who lived in Israel first? ›

The land of Israel is the birthplace of the Jewish people. Approximately 4,000 years ago, Abraham moved to the land of Israel where he lived with his family, raised his children and purchased land to bury his wife and himself. After Abraham came Isaac and Jacob.

What happen in 1972? ›

June 9 – The Black Hills flood kills 238 in South Dakota. June 12 – The first Popeyes opens in Arabi, Louisiana. June 14–23 – Hurricane Agnes kills 117 on the U.S. east coast. June 15–18 – The first U.S. Libertarian Party National Convention is held in Denver, Colorado.

Where was the 1972 Winter Olympics held? ›

Who bombed Munich in ww2? ›

World War Two started in 1939. The first major bombing on Munich started in September, 1942. Munich was the target of approximately 71 bombings from the United States alone. The US dropped 1 million bombs on this city starting in 1944.…

Why did Black September happen? ›

A civil war in Jordan from September 1970-July 1971, which began after several failed assassination attempts on the Jordanian king and the hijacking of three airplanes. The conflict centered on whether Jordan would be controlled by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) or the Hashemite monarchy.

What is the 1970s known for? ›

The 1970s are famous for bell-bottoms and the rise of disco, but it was also an era of economic struggle, cultural change and technological innovation.

Why is the year 1972 important? ›

1972 This year is marked as a black year in history due to the use of terrorism entering sport with the massacre of 11 Israel Athletes by Arab Gunman. Also this is the beginning of the biggest political scandal in modern times and the start of the Watergate Scandal.

What was the biggest thing in 1972? ›

Major Events of 1972
  • Summit meeting.
  • Arab terrorists murder 11 people at the Olympic games.
  • Britain takes direct control over Northern Ireland.
  • President Richard Nixon visits China.
  • SALT Agreement.
  • Congressman Ford is sworn in as Vice President.
  • Managua is leveled by an earthquake.

Who was the first Olympic mascot? ›

Munich 1972The Mascot

Waldi was the first official mascot in the history of the Olympic Summer Games. He is a dachshund, a very popular animal in Bavaria, famed for its endurance, tenacity and agility.

Who won the gold medal in women's figure skating in 1972? ›

The effect of the figures was even more pronounced in the ladies' competition, where gold medal winner Beatrix Schuba placed only 7th in the free skating, performing mostly single jumps. The free skating was won by Janet Lynn, who received a perfect mark of 6.0 despite falling on a flying sit spin.

Who won the Olympics in 1976? ›

Nikolai Andrianov of the Soviet Union won seven medals (four gold, two silver and one bronze medals), becoming the most medaled athlete in these Games.
...
1976 Summer Olympics medal table.
1976 Summer Olympics medals
Most gold medalsSoviet Union (49)
Most total medalsSoviet Union (125)
← 1972 Olympics medal tables 1980 →
2 more rows

Why is Munich so important? ›

Munich is a major tourist destination and a convention centre. Book publishing and printing and television production are also important. The city is a centre of the banking and financial industry, and it has one of the largest wholesale markets in Europe for fruit, vegetables, and animal produce.

Who are the famous people in Munich? ›

Birth Place Matching "Munich, Germany" (Sorted by Popularity Ascending)
  • Jeri Ryan. Actress | Star Trek: Voyager. ...
  • Werner Herzog. Director | Aguirre, der Zorn Gottes. ...
  • Lisa Vicari. Actress | Luna. ...
  • Nadia Hilker. Actress | Spring. ...
  • Alicia von Rittberg. Actress | Fury. ...
  • Michael Haneke. Writer | Caché ...
  • Moritz Bleibtreu. ...
  • Elyas M'Barek.

What is Munich famous for? ›

Munich, Germany, is known for being Germany's most productive urban city. Bavaria's capital is also famed for its beer gardens, festivals, architecture, food, public parks, shopping opportunities, and historical museums.

What does terrorism mean to you? ›

Terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom. Terrorists often use threats to: • Create fear among the public.

Who are the Hamas in Palestine? ›

HAMAS formed in late 1987 at the beginning of the first Palestinian intifada (uprising). Its roots are in the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, and it is supported by a robust sociopolitical structure inside the Palestinian territories.

Where is Jordan USA? ›

Where is Jordan Located? Jordan is located in the Middle East and borders Syria, Saudi Arabia, the Red Sea, Palestine, Israel, and Iraq. Covering some 89,342 sq.km., it is located at 31 00 N, 36 00 E.

Videos

1. 🔴 Germany hosts memorial ceremony commemorating 50 years since the Munich massacre
(i24NEWS English)
2. 50 Jahre Olympia-Attentat | maintower
(hrfernsehen)
3. Triumph and Tragedy - 50 Years on with Mark Spitz
(Laureus)
4. Q & A with Francine Zuckerman - Director of the documentary After Munich
(Concordia University)
5. Frank Shorter 50th Anniversary of 1972 Olympic Marathon Gold Live on LetsRun.com Track Talk Podcast
(letsrundotcom)
6. Incredible Performance From Olga Korbut 'Darling Of Munich' - Munich 1972 Olympics
(Olympics)

Top Articles

You might also like

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Terrell Hackett

Last Updated: 11/24/2022

Views: 5845

Rating: 4.1 / 5 (52 voted)

Reviews: 83% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Terrell Hackett

Birthday: 1992-03-17

Address: Suite 453 459 Gibson Squares, East Adriane, AK 71925-5692

Phone: +21811810803470

Job: Chief Representative

Hobby: Board games, Rock climbing, Ghost hunting, Origami, Kabaddi, Mushroom hunting, Gaming

Introduction: My name is Terrell Hackett, I am a gleaming, brainy, courageous, helpful, healthy, cooperative, graceful person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.